Understanding Sentence Fragments: A Guide for Science Writers


The art and science of writing effectively are cornerstones of communication in environmental and scientific professions. Whether you’re drafting a research paper, composing a policy brief, or writing a popular science article, your writing needs to be clear, coherent, and concise. 

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Well-structured sentences are the building blocks of compelling arguments and narratives.

Well-structured sentences are the building blocks of compelling arguments and narratives. However, a prevalent issue that hinders communication effectiveness is the use of sentence fragments. These sentences must be completed because they disrupt the flow and clarity of your writing. They may sound sophisticated to the untrained ear, but to experienced readers and editors, they often need better sentence construction.

This blog post delves into sentence fragments—what they are, why they occur, and, most importantly, how to identify and rectify them to enhance your writing skills. So, if you’re ready to take your scientific and environmental writing to the next level, keep reading.

Understanding Sentence Fragments

In writing, they punctuate sentence fragments as if they were complete, yet they lack crucial elements such as a subject, a verb, or a complete thought. Picture the phrase, “Dusk in the rainforest.” It may create a vivid image, but it’s a fragment because it lacks a verb and doesn’t form a complete thought.

In environmental and scientific writing, sentence fragments frequently occur when writers fail to ensure sentence completeness to present complex information succinctly. Consider these two statements: “The process of photosynthesis. Key to life on earth.” Both of these are fragments, lacking either a subject or a verb.

If we’re looking at the impact of sentence fragments on writing clarity, it’s essential to understand that details leave your audience guessing. They create a ‘mental speed bump,’ making the reader pause to fill in the gaps and disrupting your narrative. Therefore, understanding sentence fragments and learning how to avoid them can significantly enhance the readability of your environmental or scientific writing.

Identifying Sentence Fragments

So, how do we identify sentence fragments? The first step is to look for incomplete thoughts and missing subjects or verbs. A statement like “After the chemical reaction.” is a fragment, lacking a topic or a verb. Similarly, “The newly discovered species, adapting to climate change.” lacks a verb.

Identifying Sentence Fragments

Distinguishing between sentence fragments and complete sentences is crucial to improving your writing. A complete sentence should contain a subject and a predicate and express a complete thought. 

One of the essential skills you need to develop as an environmental or science writer is recognizing sentence fragments in your writing. This is where understanding basic grammar rules becomes indispensable. In essence, the structure of a complete sentence, with a subject and a predicate, forms the backbone of coherent and effective writing. 

Fixing Sentence Fragments

With an understanding of sentence fragments and the ability to identify them, let’s move on to the most crucial part: how to fix them. Correcting sentence fragments involves filling in the missing pieces or combining fragments to form coherent sentences.

  1. Adding Missing Subjects or Verbs
  • One of the easiest ways to correct a sentence fragment is to add the missing subject or verb. Recall the example, “After the chemical reaction.” This fragment lacks a topic or a verb and doesn’t express a complete thought. To make it a full sentence, we could add a subject and a verb: “After the chemical reaction, the substance changed color.”
  • Similarly, consider the fragment, “The newly discovered species, adapting to climate change.” It’s missing a verb to connect the subject to the action. By adding a verb, we can transform it into a complete sentence: “The newly discovered species is rapidly adapting to climate change.”

Adding a Verb

“The newly discovered species is rapidly adapting to climate change.”

  1. Combining Fragments to Create Complete Sentences
  • Sometimes, sentence fragments occur in pairs or groups, each providing a piece of information. In such cases, combining the elements can result in a complete sentence.
  • For instance, take the fragments, “The impact of deforestation. Significant for local ecosystems.” Individually, these are both fragments. However, combining them to form the complete sentence: “The impact of deforestation is significant for local ecosystems.”
  • Similarly, “The results of the study. Indicating a strong correlation between air pollution and respiratory illnesses.” can be combined into the complete sentence: “The results of the study indicate a strong correlation between air pollution and respiratory illnesses.”

Combining Fragments

The impact of deforestation is significant for local ecosystems.”

Rewriting or Restructuring Sentences for Clarity and Coherence

  • Sometimes, fixing a sentence fragment is more complex than adding a missing subject or verb or combining two elements. It may require a more substantial rewriting or restructuring of the sentence. This is particularly true when the fragment is a complex idea or concept that can’t easily be connected to another piece or completed with a single word.
  • Consider the fragment, “An issue of significant concern. The accelerating pace of global warming.” How to complete this fragment is unclear because we need to express this complex idea adequately. Somebody could restructure it into one or more complete sentences, such as: “The accelerating pace of global warming is an issue of significant concern.”

It’s worth noting that while correcting sentence fragments is essential for precise, professional writing, it’s equally important to maintain the original meaning and tone. When you add a missing subject or verb, combine fragments, or rewrite sentences, always ensure your corrections stay true to the original intention and style of your writing.

Tips to Avoid Sentence Fragments

Pay attention to sentence structure during the editing process to avoid sentence fragments. Look for sentences that feel incomplete or need a subject or verb.

Understanding sentence construction, including subordination and coordination, can also help. Compliance involves linking a dependent clause (a fragment) to an independent clause (a complete sentence), while coordination involves connecting two or more independent clauses.


  1. What is the difference between a sentence fragment and a complete sentence?

A sentence fragment lacks a subject, a verb, or a complete thought, while a complete sentence has all these elements.

  1. How can I identify sentence fragments in my writing? 

You can identify sentence fragments by searching for incomplete sentences or sentences lacking a subject or verb.

  1. Are sentence fragments consistently incorrect in writing? 

In formal writing, especially scientific papers, sentence fragments are usually considered errors. However, in informal or creative writing, somebody can use them for stylistic effects.

  1. Can you provide examples of sentence fragments commonly found in environmental and science writing?

Examples might include phrases like “the impact of climate change,” or “a complex ecosystem,” or “full of diverse species.” These are fragments because they lack either a subject or a verb.

For further reading, you can refer to these references:


Identifying and fixing sentence fragments is valuable for environmental and science writers. Not only can it help you avoid common grammar mistakes, but it can also improve the clarity and impact of your writing. Remember to review your work for sentence fragments the next time you write a report or research paper. Apply the tips and strategies we’ve discussed to ensure your writing is as clear, coherent, and effective as possible.

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